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TMR current sensor improves motor performance

Current control is the key to improving the performance of the motor. How to accurately measure the strength of the current requires an accurate current sensor. The current sensor using TMR technology will be one of the ideal choices for related applications. This article will introduce you the characteristics of TMR technology, the types of current sensors, and the product characteristics of Crocus Technology TMR current sensors sold by Murata, to provide you with a reference when choosing a product.

Current control is the key to improving the performance of the motor. How to accurately measure the strength of the current requires an accurate current sensor. The current sensor using TMR technology will be one of the ideal choices for related applications. This article will introduce you the characteristics of TMR technology, the types of current sensors, and the product characteristics of Crocus Technology TMR current sensors sold by Murata, to provide you with a reference when choosing a product.

TMR technology enables high magnetic sensitivity and stable performance

TMR (tunneling magnetoresistance) refers to a magnetoresistance effect that occurs in a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), which consists of two conductive magnetic layers flanked by a thin (nanoscale) but highly robust insulating layer, One magnetic layer has a fixed orientation of the magnetic moment, while the other layer is free to change to follow the direction of the local magnetic field. When the insulating layer is quite thin, electrons can tunnel from one ferromagnetic body to the other, and the magnitude of the tunneling resistance varies with the relative orientation of the two ferromagnetic materials. The magnetoresistive effect is the scientific basis for magnetic read/write heads in magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM) and hard disks, and is also used in sensing.

Sensors using TMR technology sometimes serve the same purpose as Hall effect sensors, but work in a completely different way because TMRs are based on different physical phenomena, which explains their superior properties as magnetic sensors, the magnetoresistive effect is the The characteristic of changing its resistance value under the influence of an external magnetic field enables electrical detection of various magnetic fields in various applications.

Crocus Technology has developed and applied its innovative XtremeSense® TMR technology to provide superior magnetic induction performance for many applications. XtremeSense® TMR technology enables high magnetic sensitivity, stable performance over temperature, low noise and low power consumption, making it useful in a variety of end products and markets.

TMR current sensor improves motor performance

Current sensor detects current for further analysis and control

The current sensor is a device that can detect the current in the wire and generate a signal proportional to the current. The generated signal can be an analog or digital voltage or current signal. These signals can be connected to a meter (such as an ammeter ) Display, and can also be stored in a data capture system for further analysis or control.

The current sensed by the current sensor and the output signal can be analog output or bipolar output when AC input, which can replicate the waveform of the sensed current, or unipolar output, which will be related to the average or RMS value of the detected current. proportional. At DC input, a unipolar output can be used to replicate the waveform of the induced current, or a digital output can be switched when the detected current exceeds a certain threshold.

The measurement of current can be classified according to basic physical principles, such as Faraday’s Law of Induction, Magnetic Field Sensors, Faraday Effect, Hall Effect Sensors, Transformer or Current Clamp Meters, Fluxgate Sensors, Shunt Resistors, Fiber Optic Current Sensors, Rogow Rogowski coil (Rogowski Coil), magnetoresistance (MR), etc. The TMR introduced in this article belongs to the magnetoresistance technology. In addition to TMR, magnetoresistance-based sensors also include anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR), giant magnetic These magnetic field sensors are suitable for AC and DC current detection, with higher accuracy than the Hall effect, and have been widely used in the industry.

Low-power, high-sensitivity, high-accuracy sensor

Magnetic sensor products from Crocus are based on its innovative XtremeSense® TMR technology, which utilizes monolithic technology to allow magnetic sensors to be fully integrated on a proprietary CMOS lithography process, simplifying manufacturing and enabling a higher level of integration and performance indicators, and can achieve high sensitivity, low noise and stable performance over a wide temperature range.

These magnetic sensors not only have high magnetic sensing performance, but also have the advantages of reliability, small size, galvanic and thermal isolation, high frequency operation and low power consumption, with high sensitivity and low noise and low power consumption at the nanometer scale The range provides high reliability and stable magnetic performance, and also provides excellent robustness in extreme operating environments. These characteristics make it ideal for many different operating environments and applications where accuracy and fast response are important, ideal sensing solutions for IoT and industrial applications, widely used in motor/motion control, energy management systems, inverse inverters, battery management, charge management and many other applications.

The TMR sensors introduced by Crocus include current sensors (contact, non-contact) and position sensors (switch, one-dimensional, two-dimensional). The contact current sensor introduced in this paper is high resolution, high bandwidth and fully integrated Sensors are solutions for products such as solar power systems, battery management systems, server power distribution units (PDUs), motor controls, motors, refrigerators, laptops, and security components.

High Precision Isolated TMR Current Sensor

The CT43x XtremeSense® TMR sensors by Crocus are 1 MHz bandwidth, high precision isolated current sensors with overcurrent fault detection. The CT430 (VCC = 5.0 V) and CT431 (VCC = 3.3 V) are both high bandwidth and Ultra-low noise integrated touch current sensor that uses Crocus Technology’s XtremeSense® TMR technology to provide high accuracy current measurement for many consumer, enterprise and industrial applications. It supports eight current ranges, where the integrated current-carrying conductor (CCC) will handle currents up to 65 A and generate the current measurement as a linear analog output voltage. It achieves a total output error of less than ±1.0% full scale (FS) over voltage and over temperature (-40°C to +125°C).

The CT43x XtremeSense® TMR sensors have a fast response capability of 1 MHz bandwidth and 300ns response time, current consumption is about 6.0 mA, CT430 has a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 9.0 mARMS, CT431 has an ultra-low noise of 9.5 mARMS, and both have Integrated common mode field rejection of -54 dB to ensure stray fields do not affect measurements in working applications. The CT43x has an integrated overcurrent detection (OCD) Circuit that recognizes the out-of-range current output on the fault pin (FLT#), which is an open-drain, active-low digital signal that can be activated by the CT43x to alert e.g. A fault condition that occurs with the microcontroller. Available in an industry standard 16-pin SOIC-Wide package, the CT43x is UL/IEC 62387, UL1577 and IEC 61000-4-5 certified, “green” and RoHS compliant. CT43x can be widely used in motor control, PLC/control boards, solar/power inverters, outdoor products, UPS, SMPS and telecom power supplies, battery management systems, smart appliances, smart meters, residential/commercial HVAC, industrial equipment, Power supply, overcurrent fault protection and other fields.


The current sensor has a wide range of applications and plays a key role in the efficiency of motor operation. The Crocus TMR current sensor introduced in this article has the characteristics of high bandwidth, ultra-low noise and high precision. It will be used in motor control and various consumer and industrial applications. one of the ideal choices.

The Links:   MG100H2CK1 ETL81-050

The development of hydrogen fuel vehicles is gradually “fast lane”, and new breakthroughs have also been made in the research and development of related technologies

With the increasing pressure on environmental protection, hydrogen energy has high hopes as a clean, efficient and safe secondary energy. Especially in the past two years, both national and local governments have frequently mentioned “hydrogen energy” in relevant plans and policies, and car companies and related supply chain companies have also accelerated their investment in this area, and have achieved success in core technologies. must break through.

According to the “Technical Roadmap for Energy Saving and New Energy Vehicles” released by my country in 2016, the scale of China’s fuel cell vehicles will reach 1 million by 2030. Judging from the current development status of the entire industry, it may not be difficult to achieve this goal, but it is not that simple. Especially in the process of commercialization, there are still many practical problems, such as transportation and storage safety, and supporting construction of hydrogen refueling stations. , vehicle ownership costs, etc.

The development of hydrogen fuel vehicles is gradually “fast lane”

With the increasing pressure of environmental protection and the intensification of market competition, in addition to electrification, more and more companies have begun to focus on hydrogen fuel vehicles.


Among them, Toyota, as an early entrant and strong promoter in the field of hydrogen fuel vehicles, has launched its Mirai hydrogen fuel cell vehicle on the market for 5 years and has sold more than 10,000 vehicles worldwide. Recently, the company announced that it will build a future community powered by hydrogen fuel near Mount Fuji in Japan, called “Woven City”.

Like Toyota, Daimler began working on hydrogen fuel cell vehicles as early as the 1990s, with related products including Mercedes-Benz buses, Fuso trucks and the F-Cell SUV. However, the relevant person in charge of the company said that in the future, the focus will shift from passenger cars to heavy trucks and public transportation, and the production capacity of hydrogen fuel trucks will be increased in the second half of 2020.

In addition, Hyundai Motor has made rapid progress in hydrogen fuel vehicles in recent years, and presented it as the theme of major exhibitions. Data show that from January to October 2019, Hyundai sold a total of 3,207 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, a year-on-year increase of 576%. In addition, BMW, Renault and other international car companies are also increasing related processes.

In the Chinese market, governments at all levels in provinces, municipalities, and regions have successively issued long-term plans for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, and major auto companies have also launched active deployments in hydrogen energy vehicles. It is understood that Great Wall Motors has developed all core technologies in terms of fuel cells and hydrogen storage systems and is ready to put them into production facilities. Geely also released the first hydrogen fuel cell bus F12 in May 2019. The vehicle adopts cutting-edge hydrogen fuel cell technology. Through actual operation tests, it can be fully filled with hydrogen to meet the operating needs of one day. With the efforts of many parties, new data from the China Automobile Association shows that in 2019, my country’s fuel cell vehicle production and sales completed 2,833 and 2,737 vehicles, an increase of 85.5% and 79.2% year-on-year, respectively.

Breakthrough: It’s time for technological breakthroughs

With the rapid development and advancement of domestic hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, new breakthroughs have also been made in the research and development of related technologies.

It is understood that Yihuatong, which has been deeply involved in the field of hydrogen fuel cells for many years, released a new generation of hydrogen fuel cell engine YHTG60SS in early December last year. The power density of the new product exceeds 500W/kg, and it has achieved 100% localization of core components. It has laid a solid foundation for the further expansion of the follow-up market.

In addition, a key technology in hydrogen fuel cells, perfluorinated proton membrane, has also made a breakthrough with the efforts of Dongyue Group, not only achieving technical breakthroughs, but also passing various tests. It is understood that Dongyue Group is currently building a corresponding large-scale production line, and is expected to meet the demand for perfluorinated proton membranes for domestic fuel cell vehicles by 2025.

However, it cannot be avoided that despite major technological breakthroughs, there are still many limitations in the commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. To achieve the goal of over one million, there are still a series of challenges that need to be overcome.

Challenge: How to be more secure? How to be more economical?

As we all know, the promotion of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles involves not only a car, but a set of complete and mature system support. For each link in this system, there is no ready-made experience for the industry and related enterprises to learn from.

First of all, it is also crucial that security issues cannot be avoided. As a fuel with a high calorific value, if hydrogen cannot properly handle the energy contained in it, it is likely to cause irreversible accidents. Therefore, before discussing how to scale hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, we must first ensure the safety of hydrogen energy transportation and storage. There are currently four known hydrogen storage methods, namely, high-pressure gaseous hydrogen storage, low-temperature liquid hydrogen storage, solid-state hydrogen storage and organic liquid hydrogen storage. The latter two methods have low hydrogen storage density and are prone to produce impurities and side reactions. , so the first two methods are mainly used at present.

Secondly, the supporting aspects of hydrogen refueling stations are also a major obstacle affecting the promotion of hydrogen energy vehicles. At present, limited by the construction cost of 10 million yuan per hydrogen refueling station, only 39 hydrogen refueling stations have been put into use nationwide in my country, and about 100 hydrogen refueling stations have not been put into use or are under construction, mainly for hydrogen Fuel cell energy supplement for large passenger cars. In California, one of the current main battlefields for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, according to data from the U.S. Department of Energy, at the end of 2018, there were already 40 hydrogen refueling stations in the region, more than 7,000 for California (data in August 2019). ) hydrogen fuel cell vehicle power supply. In contrast, China’s current hydrogen fuel cell vehicle market is mainly concentrated in the fields of public transportation and commercial vehicles. If hydrogen fuel cell vehicles can be “savagely grown” like electric vehicles, how to reduce the cost of hydrogen refueling stations and build them on a large scale? and openness will become an important issue.

The third is the cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. At present, the main cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles is concentrated in the fuel cell system, accounting for about 65% of the cost of the whole vehicle. It’s a big obstacle on the way to popularization.

Aside from the selling price, from the perspective of hydrogenation cost alone, calculated at 0.3 yuan/kWh, the current hydrogen refueling station takes into account equipment losses, and the comprehensive hydrogenation cost is about 30 yuan/kg , and if you choose the way of external hydrogen supply, the comprehensive hydrogenation cost is between 23.3 yuan/kg and 36.7 yuan/kg (depending on factors such as transportation distance, transportation method, etc.), although it has certain advantages compared to fuel vehicles, but Compared with pure electric vehicles, there is still a significant gap, which is one of the reasons why the planned hydrogen fuel cell vehicle will achieve one million ownership in 2035. Only when the cost of use is low enough, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will have certain competition. force.

Of course, the imagination space for hydrogen energy is far more than that. Store renewable energy in the form of hydrogen energy, further enrich the hydrogen energy industry chain, gradually reduce the proportion of fossil energy participation, and optimize the storage and transportation of hydrogen to separate hydrogen production from hydrogen refueling stations, thereby reducing the construction of hydrogen refueling stations. The cost and convenience of large-scale construction of hydrogen refueling stations is what our ideal carbon-free society looks like. As mentioned above, this is a whole new system. On the way to realize our vision, there are bound to be many difficulties, but Only by taking the first step can we meet the blue sky.

The Links:   DMF-50383NF-FW 1MBI600LN-060A

Mouser Electronics Introduces Texas Instruments DP83TD510E Ethernet PHY for Building and Factory Automation

May 20, 2021 – Mouser Electronics, an authorized global distributor of Texas Instruments (TI) solutions, is now stocking the TI DP83TD510E Ethernet Physical Layer (PHY) device. The PHY can achieve cable transmission distances of more than 2km and is an IEEE 802.3cg 10BASE-T1L compliant transceiver that eliminates the need for additional protocols, gateways, and cables for high-bandwidth communications, enabling designers to use Extend its reach for industrial communications and automation applications without cost or system weight.

The TI DP83TD510E Ethernet PHY distributed by Mouser can transmit 10Mbps Ethernet signals up to 1.7km over a single twisted pair. The cable transmission distance of the DP83TD510E is 1.5km longer than the 200m required by the IEEE 802.3cg 10BASE-T1L single-pair Ethernet specification. The device integrates cable diagnostic tools with built-in loopback and self-test capabilities to simplify design and debug.

The PHY features an ultra-low noise coupled receiver architecture for long cable runs and low power dissipation. This high-performance device features ultra-low power consumption, delivering less than 38mW in 1V point-to-point mode. The DP83TD510E features external MDI termination to support intrinsic safety requirements, and also supports RMII back-to-back mode for applications requiring cable transmission distances over 2,000m.

For more information on DP83TD510E Ethernet PHY, please visit

Mouser distributes more than 50,000 TI products, including more than 4,500 development kits, offering a broad range of new Texas Instruments semiconductor solutions, with new additions constantly being added.

The Links:   LM057QC1T01 TDB6HK95N16LOF

Keysight First to Submit New Protocol Test Cases to 3GPP to Accelerate Validation of IMS-Enabled 5G NR Devices

Beijing, China, October 20, 2020 – Keysight Technologies, Inc. (NYSE: KEYS) announced that it has taken the lead in submitting a batch of new protocol test cases to 3GPP. These test cases validate 5G New Radio (NR) devices supporting the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) using Keysight’s conformance test tool suite and smartphone-style mobile test equipment based on the next-generation Snapdragon mobile platform. Keysight Technologies is a leading technology company dedicated to helping enterprises, service providers and government customers accelerate innovation and create a secure, connected world.

IMS enables operators to cost-effectively and flexibly deliver a variety of multimedia services, including Voice over IP (VoIP), videoconferencing and Video on Demand (VoD). Keysight submitted these new IMS test cases to RAN 5 on September 21, 2020. As a 3GPP working group, RAN 5 is primarily responsible for developing conformance testing specifications for the radio interface of user equipment (UE).

“Keysight’s submission of this new batch of 5G NR protocol conformance test cases demonstrates our commitment to the wireless and wired industries,” said Muthu Kumaran, senior director of Keysight’s Wireless Test Group. “Our partnership with Qualcomm Technologies Inc. , protect this rapidly changing industry. No matter where users are and how they connect to the network, the industry can provide them with affordable broadband wireless access.”

The new IMS test cases are accessible through Keysight’s S8704A protocol conformance test tool suite, which enables mobile operators as well as chip and device manufacturers to verify that their products meet the requirements of the 3GPP-specific test cases. Leading device manufacturers can use Keysight’s suite of conformance test tools to access these GCF-certified 5G NR radio frequency (RF) and protocol test cases.

Pradeep Gowda, director of engineering at Qualcomm Technologies, said: “This milestone will enable the growing ecosystem of 5G devices to deliver IMS-enabled 3GPP-compliant products to mobile operators. Keysight’s 5G platform and Snapdragon 5G The modem-RF system can work together to help more companies in the industry accelerate the design, development and rollout of 5G.”

About Keysight

Keysight Technologies (NYSE: KEYS) is a leading technology company dedicated to helping enterprises, service providers and government customers accelerate innovation and create a secure, connected world. From design simulation, prototyping, production testing to network and cloud optimization, Keysight provides a full range of test and analysis solutions to help customers deeply optimize their networks, so that their Electronic products can be delivered at a lower cost and faster. to market. Our customers span the global communications ecosystem, aerospace and defense, automotive, energy, semiconductor and general electronics end markets. In fiscal 2019, Keysight’s revenue was $4.3 billion. For more information, visit

The Links:   EL640.480-A3 LM64C081

How to achieve chopper stabilization in amplifier design?

Devices such as accelerometers, angular velocity sensors, and Hall sensors commonly associated with Internet of Things (IoT) applications require efficient post-processing when converting from analog input signals to digital signals. A voltage-to-frequency converter is the solution here, and a key part of the voltage-to-frequency conversion is the precision op amp.


Since the introduction of semiconductor amplifiers, analog and mixed-signal designers have been challenged with amplifier 1/f noise and DC offset and drift in their Circuit designs. This blog aims to provide designers with the basics on how to implement chopper stabilization in their designs.

According to Jim Williams of Linear Technology, the chopper stabilization method was developed by EA Goldberg in 1948 and uses the input of an amplifier to Amplitude modulation of the AC carrier. This carrier is amplified and synchronously demodulated back to DC and provides the output of the amplifier. Since the DC input is converted to an AC signal and amplified to an AC signal, the DC term of the amplifier does not affect the overall drift. Therefore, chopper-stabilized amplifiers can achieve lower drift over time and temperature than traditional differential types.

Figure 1 Switches implement modulation in a classic chopper-stabilized op amp.Source: Analog Devices

As shown in Figure 1, the switch performs modulation so that the input is multiplied by a square wave at the chopping frequency. As a result, the amplifier will only pass low frequencies due to the input anti-aliasing filter.

Now, let’s look at an improved auto-zero or chopper-stabilized amplifier (Figure 2).

Figure 2 This figure shows an improved auto-zero or chopper-stabilized amplifier.Source: Analog Devices

Here, A1 is the main amplifier, where the input signal is always connected to the output, and A2 performs the auto-zeroing amplifier function.

Do’s and Don’ts

Care should be taken to avoid resonance with capacitive loads

Designers need to understand the complex output impedance (Z0) of the op amp and its interaction with capacitive loads. Once the op amp is compensated, the application circuit becomes stable.

Avoid 1/f noise

One way to avoid 1/f noise is to modulate the signal into a region without 1/f noise and then demodulate it. This method, known as chopper stabilization, has been used for many years to move 1/f noise to another frequency band where it can be filtered out. Zero-drift op amps take advantage of this approach to achieve noise levels approaching 100 nV pp (16 nV rms) from 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz, which is primarily due to white noise.

Don’t assume that modern chopper op amps will eliminate the need for standard op amps

However, today’s new generation of chopper amplifiers are useful in a wider range of applications. They have strong offset voltage stability, have virtually no flicker noise, and have performance very close to standard op amps.

Design examples in the real world

Devices such as accelerometers, angular velocity sensors, and Hall sensors commonly associated with Internet of Things (IoT) applications require efficient post-processing when converting from analog input signals to digital signals. A voltage-to-frequency converter is the solution here, and a key part of the voltage-to-frequency conversion is the precision op amp.

Chopper-stabilized op amps are precision op amps that continuously correct for low-frequency errors across the amplifier’s input.

Chopping op amps are commonly used in industrial and instrumentation applications, especially where low operating power is required. Together with a suitable ADC, reliable performance up to 24-bit precision can be achieved. Typical applications might be chopper-stabilized op amps, precision voltage or current sources used as buffers, or front-end gain amplifiers in sensor applications, or both.

Another common application is where the output of a pressure-sensing bridge can be digitized using a high-precision 24-bit sigma-delta ADC. The challenge for designers is that the differential inputs of high-end sigma-delta ADCs often need to be buffered to prevent them from interfering with sensor performance.

A chopper-stabilized amplifier is ideal for this buffer here, as conventional instrument topologies cannot meet noise, voltage offset (VOS), or drift specifications. A separate reference voltage does not normally drive the pressure sensor bridge. Its output must be buffered to ensure that the effective voltage across the bridge sensor remains stable over temperature and time.

The new generation of choppers is much quieter than the earlier ones. Modern choppers contain a switched capacitor filter with multiple notches aligned with the chopping frequency and its odd harmonics. In the frequency domain, this produces a sinc(x) or sin(x)/x filter response whose zeros are precisely aligned with the fundamental and all harmonics of the triangle wave (Figure 3).

Figure 3 The input stage of the filter response of a chopper op amp shows how a new generation of chopper op amps can combine switched capacitor filters with filters with multiple notches aligned with the chopping frequency and harmonics. Source: Texas Instruments

Since 1/f or flicker noise is just a slow offset voltage that varies over time, the chopper can remove much of this increased noise spectral density in the low frequency range. The chopping action shifts the baseband signal to the chopping frequency, which is well beyond the 1/f region of the input stage. Therefore, the noise spectral density in the low frequency signal range of the chopper amplifier is equal to the noise spectral density in the high frequency range of the amplifier.

The Links:   EL640.480-A3 LQ5AW136R IGBTS

Yole: China may be the first to achieve independent control on CIS

In a recently published report, Yole paints an optimistic picture for CIS.

They pointed out that on a global scale, the CMOS image sensor industry is booming. This performance is mainly attributable to the sustainability of the mobile camera market, but also to most of the premium segment. In this case, the sanctions on Huawei intensified the demand for CIS, while the company added additional inventory for 2 quarters, which exacerbated the tight supply of CIS.

According to the report, as of 2019, the industry’s revenue reached $19.3 billion, and according to Yole’s forecast, between 2019 and 2025, the CAGR of CMOS image sensors is forecast to be 8.1%, and the revenue should reach $27 billion in five years. Of course, mobile will be the largest market, data shows that mobile business occupies the most important position in CIS, accounting for 69% of market revenue, while security and automotive will become the second and third largest market segments of CIS in 2020, The compound annual growth rate is also as high as 20%.

In “all markets except mobile,” the report said, only two end-product categories showed a downward trend, namely consumer photography (DSC, DSLR, action cameras, drone cameras) and computers (PC, notebooks) PCs, Tablets), but they are supportive and there are signs of recovery in both markets.

Yole emphasized that over the next 5 years, all other segments such as automotive, medical, security, industrial, defense and aerospace will outperform the CIS average. The growth of CIS is still dominated by mobile devices for now, but this will shift to the high-end market by 2025.

At the top of the market, player performance is the result of competition in the smartphone market. According to the data, Sony and Samsung ranked first and second, respectively, with a market share of 42% and 21%, while Omnivision was third with a market share of 10%. STMicroelectronics, which captured 6% of the market, jumped to fourth, thanks to the comeback of its near-infrared (NIR) sensing imagers for iPhones and tablets, and their growing presence in the market. Sony and Samsung subsequently updated their product portfolios in line with 3D sensing trends. Indirect Time-of-Flight (iToF) and Direct Time-of-Flight (dToF) arrays were the answers they handed over. It can also be seen that excellent technological innovations have driven these top business development.

At the other end of the market, an emerging player to watch comes from China. Omnivision has been acquired by Shanghai-based company Will semiconductor, the report said. Two other Chinese companies, Galaxycore and Smartsens, are also booming, reportedly benefiting from the domestic market ecosystem for mobile and security cameras.

Right now, when more U.S. sanctions limit their access to technology, large capital injections have fueled their growth, Yole said. CIS may be one of the first semiconductor product categories that China can become technologically independent of because the required foundries are located in mainland China.

In Yole’s view, the technological race remains a key aspect of the CIS competition, which also drives the development of sub-3D pixels and semiconductor technologies and novel pixel designs. Over the years, the CIS manufacturing process has seen significant improvements, they said. The industry has also transitioned from FSI to BSI, and now to stacked BSI, using TSVs to connect to sensor arrays and logic chips. The standard technique has now moved to hybrid stacks using Cu-Cu connections. In their view, quantum and neuromorphic approaches should bring a new generation of applications to market, and the next technological challenge facing the industry is the integration of artificial intelligence (AI) into CIS sensors.

They say the next era will involve robotics, augmented reality (AR) and the intelligent Internet of Things (IoT). All of these are markets in which Chinese companies are well positioned. The ranking of CIS countries will eventually change with these new changes. “


The Links:   LQ9D340H 6DI150A-060

Focus on the four major industrial chain alliances | Yuan Jixin: Building a scientific and technological innovation community in the field of artificial intelligence in the Yangtze River Delta

On the morning of May 27, at the 3rd Yangtze River Delta Integrated Development High-level Forum, the Yangtze River Delta Artificial Intelligence Industry Chain Alliance was unveiled. After the establishment of the alliance, how can the artificial intelligence industry in the Yangtze River Delta move towards a strong alliance and win-win cooperation? Yuan Jixin, chairman of the Zhejiang Artificial Intelligence Industry Technology Innovation Alliance and deputy director of the Zhijiang Laboratory, said.

Yuan Jixin said: “Zhijiang Laboratory is a major scientific and technological innovation platform for Zhejiang Province to promote high-quality development strategy and implement innovation-driven development strategy. This time to participate in the Yangtze River Delta Integration Forum, it is a high-end scientific research institution and artificial intelligence enterprise in the Yangtze River Delta. Together, we will solve some core technologies and bottleneck problems in the field of artificial intelligence, and jointly create an innovative community in the field of artificial intelligence in the Yangtze River Delta.”

Yuan Jixin said that Zhijiang Laboratory has already started to deploy data sharing, application scenarios and R&D platforms with scientific research institutions and related intelligent enterprises in the Yangtze River Delta, and jointly promote the research and development of major artificial intelligence projects and the construction of major scientific installations.

Yuan Jixin believes that the development momentum of the artificial intelligence industry is very strong and the demand is large, but at present, this field still relies more on algorithms, data, scenarios, etc. There are still many basic bottlenecks and cutting-edge technical problems that need to be solved, and these problems It is impossible to accomplish this by relying solely on one or two institutions. It requires various scientific research institutions and enterprises in the Yangtze River Delta to unite, integrate talents, equipment and other resources according to their own development advantages, and focus on breakthroughs, break down barriers, and achieve free flow. Only in this way can we shorten the time to solve the problem. At the same time, it can also focus on breakthroughs and achieve self-reliance and self-improvement.

Yuan Jixin also revealed that after the establishment of the artificial intelligence industry chain alliance, it will first sort out the basic resources of the Yangtze River Delta, one city and three provinces in the development of artificial intelligence, as well as the core advantages in the development of artificial intelligence in various places. , leading enterprises in the development of artificial intelligence technology, the required application scenarios, etc., and then integrate various resources, truly achieve strong alliances, complement each other’s advantages, and promote the rapid development of the artificial intelligence industry in the Yangtze River Delta.

The Links:   PM100RLA120 QM100DY-2H

TSMC partners with Ansys to provide thermal analysis solutions for 3D-IC designs

Advanced packaging has become a prominent technology in semiconductor manufacturing. TSMC, the leading foundry, cooperates with EDA manufacturers and Ansys to create a comprehensive thermal analysis solution with multi-chip design constructed by 3D Fabric. 3D Fabric is a comprehensive series of TSMC’s 3D silicon stack and advanced packaging technology. , based on Ansys tools, applied to simulate the temperature of 3D and 2.5D Electronic systems containing multiple chips, tightly stacked using advanced TSMC 3D Fabric technology. Sophisticated thermal analysis prevents these systems from failing due to overheating and increases lifetime reliability.

TSMC cooperated with Ansys to use Ansys Icepak as a reference for thermal analysis of TSMC 3D Fabric technology. Ansys is also working with TSMC to develop high-capacity layered thermal solutions, using Ansys RedHawk-SC Electrothermal to analyze complete chip packaging systems with high-fidelity results.

Ansys Icepak is a simulation software product that simulates airflow, heat flow, temperature and cooling in electronic components through computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Ansys RedHawk-SC Electrothermal is a simulation software product for solving multi-physics power integrity, signal integrity and thermal equations of 2.5D/3D multi-chip IC systems. Ansys RedHawk-SC is a semiconductor power integrity and reliability analysis tool certified by TSMC for verification at all finFET process nodes of the latest 4nm and 3nm.

The cooperation between TSMC and Ansys, on October 26, TSMC’s 2021 Open Innovation Platform (OIP) Ecosystem Forum, released an Ansys solution paper titled “A Comprehensive Hierarchical Thermal Solution for Advanced 3DIC Systems” (AComprehensive Hierarchical Thermal Solution for Advanced 3DIC Systems), TSMC expanded the Ansys Red Hawk series cooperation and included ReedHawk-SC for electromigration and voltage drop (EM/IR) verification of TSMC-SoIC technology, which is the most comprehensive chip stacking technology for 3D Fabric.

Suk Lee, vice president of TSMC’s Design and Construction Management Office, said that TSMC is working closely with OIP ecosystem partners to use TSMC’s advanced process and 3D Fabric technology to bring significant benefits in power, performance and area to enable next-generation designs. This collaboration with Ansys provides a thermal solution process for complete chip and package analysis, which is of great value to TSMC customers.

The Links:   A080SN03 V0 FF900R12IP4

Application of CC1101 ultra-low-power wireless module in IoT-enabled door locks

The CC1101 is TI’s ultra-low-power wireless transceiver chip that supports the sub-1 GHz frequency band and is mainly aimed at industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) and short-range wireless communication devices (SRD). The CC1101 provides extensive hardware support for packet processing, data buffering, burst transmission, Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI), Clear Channel Assessment (CCA), Link Quality Indication (LQI), and Wake-on-Wireless (WOR). Supports multiple signal modulation modes (OOK/ASK, GFSK, 2-FSK, 4-FSK and MSK); supports data rates from 1.2kbps to 500kbps. The maximum transmit power is 10dBm.

The CC1101 is TI’s ultra-low-power wireless transceiver chip that supports the sub-1 GHz frequency band and is mainly aimed at industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) and short-range wireless communication devices (SRD). The CC1101 provides extensive hardware support for packet processing, data buffering, burst transmission, Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI), Clear Channel Assessment (CCA), Link Quality Indication (LQI), and Wake-on-Wireless (WOR). Supports multiple signal modulation modes (OOK/ASK, GFSK, 2-FSK, 4-FSK and MSK); supports data rates from 1.2kbps to 500kbps. The maximum transmit power is 10dBm.

1. Introduction of E07 series modules

The E07 series module is a wireless module with small volume and multiple packages designed and produced by Chengdu Ebyte Co., Ltd. based on the CC1101 chip. The default transmission power is 10mW; there are also modules with built-in PA, and the transmission power can reach 100mW. The module adopts SPI interface, integrated transceiver, can work in 433MHz, 868MHz, 915MHz mainstream ISM frequency band, supports low-power development, this series has been in stable mass production, and is suitable for a variety of application scenarios (especially hotel Electronic door locks) ).

2. Application of E07 series modules in smart door locks

The intelligent door lock is improved on the basis of the traditional mechanical lock, and the original mechanical unlocking method is improved to the intelligent identification method. These include biometric identification methods such as fingerprint unlocking and iris recognition; wireless keys, radio frequency cards, magnetic cards and other non-contact types. The following will illustrate the use of E07 series modules in smart door lock applications.

3. Conclusion

There are already many solutions for smart door locks. No matter what kind of communication method is used, we all hope that it has low cost, low power consumption, safety and stability, so we recommend the products of Chengdu Ebyte.

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What are the basic requirements for PCB pad design that can be underfilled

The design of the component pads of the PCB is a key point, and the quality of the final product lies in the quality of the solder joints. Therefore, whether the pad design is scientific and reasonable is very important.

The design of the component pads of the PCB is a key point, and the quality of the final product lies in the quality of the solder joints. Therefore, whether the pad design is scientific and reasonable is very important.

For the same component, all symmetrically used pads (such as chip resistors, capacitors, SOIC, QFP, etc.) should be designed to strictly maintain their overall symmetry, that is, the shape and size of the pad pattern should be exactly the same. In order to ensure that when the solder is melted, the surface tension (also known as wetting force) acting on all solder joints on the component can be balanced (that is, the resultant force is zero), so as to facilitate the formation of ideal solder joints.

What are the basic requirements for PCB pad design that can be underfilled? 1. Basic requirements for PCB pad design

1. PCB design: the spacing between the underfill device and the square device is more than 200Um.

2. Appropriately reduce the pad area, increase the pad spacing, and increase the filling gap.

3. The minimum distance between the underfill device and the surrounding components should be greater than the outer diameter of the dispensing needle (0.7mm).

4. All semi-through holes need to be filled and covered with solder mask. Open half-vias can create voids.

5. The solder mask must cover all metal substrates outside the pads.

6. Reduce bending and ensure the flatness of the substrate.

7. PCB board processing should eliminate the trench-shaped solder mask openings as much as possible to ensure consistent fluidity, ensure the consistency and smoothness of the solder mask, and ensure that there are no small gaps to accommodate air or flux residues. These are all later SMT. The cause of voids in chip processing.

8. Reduce the exposure of base materials around the solder balls, and coordinate with the dimensional tolerance of the solder mask to avoid inconsistent wetting effects.

2. Preparation before bottom filling

Mainly cleaning and baking chips. Baking the chip before the filling process removes voids created by moisture. For a 1mm thick substrate, it needs to be baked at 125°C for 2H. Different packaging forms require different time. If the temperature of the baking is increased, the time can be shortened accordingly.

No-flow underfill material is a mixture of flux, solder, and filler material. The no-flow underfill process involves dispensing a no-flow underfill material onto the pad locations prior to device placement. When the assembly board is re-sweat, the underfill material can act as a flux to activate the pads, form the solder joint interconnection, and complete the solidification of the filler material in the reflow soldering colleague, combining the two processes of soldering and glue curing. for one.

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